Folliculogenesis and oogenesis are important events preceding the release of the mature oocyte (ovulation), as well as for in vitro oocyte maturation, which is. Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Pgs. (Campbell). Spermatogenesis. Production of sperm. Continuous and prolific; Each ejaculation.
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Methods for studying oogenesis
Effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin on actin. Isolation and characterization of sex-linked female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.
Expression is low in oogenesix egg chambers, and high in late stages. Intercellular bridges between epithelial cells in the Drosophila ovarian follicle: The study of these genes requires a means to inactivate or knock down gene function specifically in the ovary without compromising essential functions elsewhere in the fly.
The migration of these cells is guided by the PVR growth factor produced in the oocyte [ 34 ], and jurnxl by acto-myosin dynamics [ 35 ]. Identification and behavior of epithelial stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.
Table 1 Commonly used Gal4 lines. Localization of RNA during oogenesis is essential for patterning the egg chamber and for storing patterning cues for embryogenesis. Reassessing the role and dynamics of nonmuscle myosin II during furrow formation in early Drosophila embryos.
Movement of egg chambers is facilitated by peristaltic contractions of circular muscles surrounding each ovariole and a muscle mesh surrounding the whole ovary [ 3 — 5 ].
Work from many labs during the past judnal has resulted in remarkable innovations in the genetic tools available to study the genes and developmental mechanisms controlling oogenesis. After completing mitosis, escort cells are exchanged for follicle cells to complete stage 1 egg chamber assembly. All cells including follicle stem cells and escort cells. Global tissue revolutions in a morphogenetic movement controlling elongation.
Finally, a heat fixation protocol first developed for Drosophila embryos [ 96 ] can be employed and has been used as a fixative for adherens junction components in ovaries [ 97 ]. Polarization of both major body axes in Drosophila by gurken-torpedo signalling.
The wild-type chromosome typically includes a marker or reporter gene to allow for identification of recombined cells Figure 2. Genetic methods The greatest strength of Drosophila as an experimental system is the ability to use genetic analysis to understand cellular and developmental processes. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers oogensis apply to the journal pertain.
It therefore appears that formaldehyde fixation can result in the alteration of some F-actin structures, though based on our experience this artifact appears to be limited to the long F-actin cables that form at stage 10B. Primordial germ cells form early in embryonic development and are the first embryonic cells to undergo cellularization.
Gal4 in the Drosophila female germline. Open in a separate window. Similarly, wild-type gene product may or may not, depending on its ability to diffuse move from a genetically wild-type olgenesis to a homozygous mutant cell. Transplanted pole cells give rise to only germline tissue [ 5455 ], so this technique can be used to determine whether a gene affecting oogenesis functions in the germ cells or the associated somatic cells.
Ovaries can be dissected into PBS, or more specialized media designed for Drosophila ex oobenesis culture e. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging. The movement and nurnal of these maternal mRNAs are active areas of research that benefit from the oogwnesis to do live-cell imaging to reveal conserved mechanisms of mRNA localization [ 2526 ].
Methods for studying oogenesis
New components of the Drosophila fusome suggest it plays novel roles in signaling and transport. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. As a result, expansion of egg chambers takes place anisotropically toward the poles [ 13 ]. Prostaglandin signaling is involved with triggering the formation of nurse cell actin cables [ 30 ].
Mononuclear muscle jurna in Drosophila ovaries revealed by GFP protein traps. The effort to make mosaic analysis a household tool. Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues.
Microtubules Preservation and efficient immunolabeling of the microtubule cytoskeleton can be challenging. Temporal complexity within a translational control element in the nanos mRNA. A new wave of cellular imaging.
The follicle cells are generated by two follicle-cell stem cells located between germarium regions 2a and 2b.