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It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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On the other hand, the holders of the small Iqtas were the small troops holders who had no administrative responsibilities. The process of centralization as a clear policy was implemented under Balban.

They united the Amirs of Persia and reorganized their land into Iqtas, whose borders remained largely similar to the predecessor states. The revenue was meant for the muqti’s own expenses, payment and maintenance of the troops and the rest had to be sent back to the king. The chaudhari was the head of a pargana.

The demarcation of duties between shiqdars and katwais is not very clear. They united the Amirs of Persia and reorganized their land into Iqtas, whose borders remained largely similar to the predecessor states.

These qita included nazir and lOakuf. Keep Exploring Britannica English language. They had no other right to the subjects apart from the taxes as long qita taxes were paid.

Iqta System

Contrary to most other forms of Iqta, it was ista, but the land was divided when there were more sons of age. Muhammad of Ghur was the first to introduce the iqta system in India, but it was lltutrnish who gave it an institutional form.


Muktis or lOalis were responsible for law and order and collection of taxes in their iqtas or provinces. Explain with at least tw The assignees of bigger iqtas-known as muqti or lOali-had dual obligation, tax collection and administration.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

The muqti was thus a tax collector and army paymaster sytsem into one. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of Each shiq was divided into kqta number of parganas, groups of hundred villages.

The holders of small iqtas were individual troopers. The Governments in those times made all attempts to increase the revenue by collecting taxes as per those in Islamic nations. The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them. His absolutist rule concentrated on limiting the power of the estates mainly the nobility and merchants and securing his supreme authority as the king. Each province was under a mukti or lOali.

In the 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate was divided into a number of military regions, called iqtas. A m1’shrif was in charge of accounts and revenue at the pargana level.

Their accounts were checked by the royal auditors of the dilOan-i-lOizarat. Taxation and distribution of revenue resources Iraqi history In Iraq: This suggests a genuine effort to estimate actual revenue expenditure and surplus.

The office of Iqqta was made hereditary and we are told that the salary of the Muqti was also fixed at a higher percentage. Muqti combined the function of revenue collector, administrator, pay master and the military commander. In this period, there was still no method of assessing the revenue to be collected.

The Sultan was an autocrat and his will was law, though he considered himself the deputy of the Khalifa.


Habibullah holds that this official managed foreign affairs, and received and sent envoys. This page was last edited on 5 Decemberat Ita Tughlaq introduced a policy marked by moderation. Articles containing Sustem text Iqtz to be expanded from July All articles to be expanded Articles with empty sections from July All articles with empty sections Articles using small message boxes Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.

It originated from the need to secure one’s self by paying taxes to the most powerful leader, but later developed into something exchangeable by the landowners like with the fiefdoms of Europe. As with other feudal-like tax farming systems, Iqta’ evolved from the tribal practices. It was just an administrative unit. A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. A small part of the money was to be given to the Sultan, aystem the percentage was usually insignificant compared to the other expenses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A mechanism had to be devised to collect the surplus from the peasantry and redistribute it among the members of the ruling class.

The organisation of the government was feudal in character.


The important development was that there was the possibility of retaining part of the surplus for oneself, illegally. Amir Khusarau, for the first time, referred to Khuts as Zamindars. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.