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PDF | Ficus carica var. smyrica is the rare fruit trees that depend on pollination wasp Blastophbaga psenes for fertilization and forming fruits. In a way, Estahban’s. PDF | On Jan 1, , F. Kjellberg and others published Longevity of a fig wasp ( Blastophaga psenes). Dynamics of Blastophaga psenes Populations, Availability of Caprifigs, and Fig Endosepsis Caused by Fusarium moniliforme. T. J. Michailides and D. P. Morgan .

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After mating, females emerge from the fig and search for a new nearby fig in which to lay their eggs. The larvae become adults around the same time male fig flowers are ready to produce pollen. Fig Ficus carica, Moraceae.

The enlarged opening enables the females to leave the syconium in search of a new one where to oviposit. Due to this rush, pollination will become less effective as more pollen falls off of the wasp bodies.

Spring, or undelayed, caprifigs usually occur on female trees. There is a major difference between male and female fig trees. They have no wings and die shortly after. Due to the difference blastophsga male and female trees, male tree figs are more attractive than female tree figs as caused by selection. This rush creates a large number of blashophaga all competing to enter an adjacent syconium.

When an adult wasp is mature, it mates with another wasp within the syconium. Retrieved 11 October psenfs Archived from the original on 27 April Wasps who were higher up in the tree or further out on a branch also showed more fungus on their wings and bodies.

Uses authors parameter link. These wasps’ native range is in the Palaearctic, including Southern Europe near the Mediterranean Basin. The spring and winter caprifigs have a cycle related to each other as to maximize resources and output of figs and wasps.


When wasps emerge from the syconium, they blastopahga to the nearest syconia. All female flowers on male tree with ovaries that are not parasitized with wasp eggs will produce seeds and will help pollination and reproduction of that flower.

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Mutualism occurs between fig and fig wasps, which creates a pzenes for specific species of figs to be pollinated by specific species of wasps. Due to the fact that wasps do not have very long ovipositors, they can only parasitize ovaries of these female flowers with short styles which are only found on male trees.

Figs emit compounds that the wasps can sense. Also, it is near impossible for wasps to emerge from a fig if they cannot perform oviposition. When the larvae hatch, they develop in the fig ovariescreating a gall. Female wasps oviposit into the syconium for hatching.

The origin of mutualism is also the beginning of the fig wasp phylogeny. The mother produces this hyperplastic tissue when she blastophaha the eggs in the syconium.

This also implies that the fig wasp population is much more active and larger in the spring. This page was last edited on 14 Novemberat The actual attractive substances come from the ostiole.

The American Phytopathological Society. Blastopuaga concept is called associative learning of odor because the ants are indirectly finding these wasps by associating the smell of the fig with the wasps. Pentane extracts from figs which are in their receptive-phase will attract B. Yet females’ wings and antennae detach as they enter the opening of a fig. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata.

After fertilization, females emerge from a syconium with nematodes still in hemocoel blastolhaga with pollen flakes along her body. While the nematodes as parasites are not lethal to B.


These nematodes then invade, feed, and reproduce inside the floret tissues. There is also a difference in winter and spring caprifigs male figs and the time course for becoming available for receiving eggs psened being pollinated.

The wasps breed inside the fig. Studies show that wasps on upper surfaces of the leaves were infected with this fungus in higher levels than other wasps.

Blastophaga – Wikipedia

Both smell and taste also help actual entrance into a fig once the desired fig has been located. This section on cleptoparasitism needs attention from an expert in Biology. Because this nematode is primarily found in the hemocoel of a female wasp, males are not associated with nematodes.

Retrieved 26 May They know that most fig wasps are located on male fig trees, so they use that relationship to prey on wasps.

Blastophaga psenes – Identical Protein Groups Result

Retrieved from ” https: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Instead, it will move on and search for another receptive fig. This can lead to some flowers not being pollinated because some styles are too long. In the case where the ants cannot detect odors, the wasps will not be predated upon. Some pseenes can carry a disease that is carried by F.

They do this by holding up their heads and antennae next to the opening of the syconium the ostiole.

This leads to the trend that female trees are lethal since wasps are stuck in that syconium. If the wasp does not detect a signal, it will not enter the fig. One of the main predators of these wasps is ants.