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Treatise on Instrumentation (Dover Books on Music) [Hector Berlioz, Richard Strauss] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The most influential. Book Source: Digital Library of India Item : Hector ioned. Berlioz was one of the first composers to deal greatly with orchestration. In this treatise he talks about what the different sounds that instruments make (tone.

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It blends easily with the rest of the harmony, and even the least skilful composer can at will berlios it a prominent role or make it play a part that is useful though inconspicuous.

Treatise on Instrumentation – Wikipedia

Treatize one may see in a host of otherwise fine scores the basses almost constantly doubled in unison with a single trombone. One may find in their scores passages instrumentatioon a passionate intent and martial tone that are oddly at variance with the sound of the oboes that play them. There is nothing more vulgar, I would even say more monstrous and less designed to blend with the rest of the orchestra than those more or less fast passages written as solos for the middle range of the ophicleide in some modern operas.

Berrlioz, 4th symphony, 2nd movement, bars [ These you now find, but the number of string instruments has not been increased, so the tonal balance is destroyed, the violins can scarcely be heard, and the overall result is dreadful. This effect was unknown to Mozart, Weberand Beethoven. There is incidentally no need, as there is for wind instruments, to calculate the duration of a held note, or to provide them with pauses from time to time.

Any well-organised concert orchestra must be set out in this way. The place occupied by musicians, the way they are arranged on a horizontal or inclined platform, in an enclosure that is shut on three sides or at the centre of a hall, with sound-reflectors made of hard material suitable for reflecting sound, or of soft material which absorbs it and cuts the vibrations short, placed nearer or further away from the musicians, all of these have considerable importance.

The brilliant effect produced by military bands in some streets of large cities supports this statement while appearing to contradict it. One may use as many timpanists as there are timpani in the orchestra, in order to produce rolls and rhythms with two, three, or four parts, depending on the numbers available. Symphonie Fantastique1st movement, bar and following; 3rd movement, bar 3 and following; overture instrumentayion King Learbar 38 and following, bar and following; overture to Benvenuto Cellinibar and following; Instrumengation and Juliet2nd movement, bar 81 and following; overture Le Corsairebar and following].

Wealthy magnates who are prepared to give 50, francs or more for a painting from a great master, because this represents a safe investmentwould not spend even fifty bdrlioz to make it possible to hold once a year some musical celebration worthy of country such as ours, which would display to good effect the considerable musical resources it does actually possess but which in practice cannot be put to good use.


Their tretise without our explicit permission is illegal. The timbre of the middle and upper ranges does not have a strongly defined expressive character.

This makes it superior to any other instrument when the intention is to move by reviving images and feelings from the instrumsntation, and when the composer wishes to touch the hidden chords of tender memories. The upper notes played fortissimo are excellent for violent and shattering effects, as for example in a storm or in a piece of a ferocious or infernal character.

Assuming a composer had such resources at his instrumwntation, in a vast hall organised for this instrumentatikn by an architect versed in acoustics and music, he would need to determine precisely before starting work the disposition and layout of this huge orchestra, and then keep them always in mind while composing.

Then it was not possible at the time to write for violas instruumentation parts which required from the players a normal degree of proficiency. It is extremely valuable in large orchestras of wind instruments; but few players decide to take up the instrument.

Clearly all was lost. In this passage the contrasting sounds blend in truly wonderful fashion with the melodic sighs of the clarinet and enhance their expressiveness Example: Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone. For technical reasons it is not possible to reproduce the vocal examples, but the purely instrumental examples are now almost all available on a page entitled Predecessors and Contemporaries.

Grand traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, Op.10 (Berlioz, Hector)

It was left to Weber to discover the terrifying berrlioz of these instrujentation notes when used to sustain sinister harmonies. In the latter case the string instruments would be too weak to dominate the mass of clarinets and brass instruments, and would serve to provide a harmonious treatisr with the strident sounds of the orchestra of wind instruments.

The reason for this probably lies in the development of inetrumentation branch of art, and perhaps also in the proliferation of critical opinions, varied doctrines, pronouncements whether reasonable or unreasonable, spoken or written, which is elicited by even the slightest works of the most insignificant composers.

Its sonority is not very powerful, and its timbre, totally devoid of brightness or nobility, has a propensity towards the grotesque, which must always be kept in mind when it is given a prominent part. And lastly neither the violin, nor the viola, nor the cello, whether used solo or as a section, were suitable to express this sublime lament of a suffering shade overcome with despair; the instrument required was precisely that chosen by the composer.

Should it be absolutely necessary to use the oboes in a piece of this kind to give more body to the harmony and increase the power of the wind section, then at least the parts should be written in such a way that their timbre, unsuited to this style of music, should be completely covered berliox the other instruments and should blend with the ensemble so as to be unobtrusive.

Treatise On Instrumentation

Yet even in this case the organ would not really blend with the other instruments, but would answer and question them. Common terms and phrases Actual pitch Allegro alto trombone Andante aria tdeatise bass clarinet bass drum bass trombone bass tuba Bassi bassoon Beethoven Berlioz better bugle character Chor chords chorus chromatic intervals combined composer Cornet cresc difficult double double-basses effect employed English horn Example executed fifth finger flute four fourth string G-clef Gluck hand harmonics harp high tones Horn in F Hrnr impossible impracticable Including the chromatic instru kettledrums keys Klar Beflioz.


The sound reverberates and circulates actively in the narrow space between them before escaping through the spaces left open. Bornstein Limited preview – It can therefore be used to good effect in many circumstances. This produces a rather prolonged metallic shimmer, sinister in quality though without the formidable power of a stroke on the tam-tam. But as large orchestras always have four bassoons, the composer may with advantage write four real parts, or better still, three parts with the lowest doubled an octave below, to give more strength to the bass line.

The player does this by bringing the cymbals close to his chest immediately after striking them. Since we are now used to hear it playing in dance orchestras melodies that are more or less devoid of originality and distinction, and since its timbre has neither the nobility of the horn nor the pride of the trumpet, it is rather difficult to introduce the cornet to the elevated melodic style. These give to the flute all its sad character in the key of D minor where they occur frequently.

There can be no doubt about the system of rehearsals needed for this gigantic orchestra: A violin section has power, lightness and grace, it can express sombre or joyful feelings, reverie and passion.

A larger number of string instruments would even be too loud in many cases for the delicate effects which these two masters have normally entrusted to flutes, oboes and bassoons only. This cost-cutting method is intolerable: Its task is therefore not to reinforce the double-basses, with which its timbre does not blend in any way.

This applies to trombones, ophicleides, double-bassoons, and in many cases to trumpets and cornets. Its power can be limited or considerable depending on whether it draws on the instrujentation or only part of the performing resources available to modern music, and depending on whether those resources are well chosen or not and set out in acoustic conditions that are more or less favourable.

For accompaniments pizzicato figures played piano are always graceful in effect; they relax the listener and when used with discretion give variety to the orchestral texture.

Sticks with sponge heads are the best; they are the most musical and are less noisy, instrjmentation should be used most of the time. Les Francs-jugesOp. The lower strings except for those at the instrrumentation end of the range, which are loose and dull in tone have a veiled, mysterious, and beautiful quality, but have hardly ever been used for anything but bass accompaniments in the left hand.