Pathogens and Their Weaponization. Geoffrey Zubay. Columbia University Press . Agents of Bioterrorism. Google Preview. Pub Date: February Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Geoffrey Zubay and others published Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and their Weaponization }. [Book Review: Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization.] Article in The Quarterly Review of Biology 81(3) · September with 5.
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Initiating the proper treatment and curtailing outbreaks is the most crucial step, because prompt initiation of antibiotic treatment would prevent people from becoming ill and from dying. In addition, analysis of rickettsial genomics and proteomics will enhance our clinical and field diagnostic capabilities, thus reducing misdiagnosis and false-negative results in routine surveillance studies.
The sudden occurrence of thwir few human cases in bioterrorisk of nonendemicity could set off the alarm. Each chapter considers a particular pathogen from the standpoint of its history, molecular biology, pathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, weaponization, and defenses.
Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.
Although the attributes of rickettsial pathogens that increase their potential for use as a biological weapon weaonization those of other highly publicized, weaponized pathogens, realistically several compounding factors would make it very difficult to produce large quantities of highly purified weapon-quality rickettsiae. Sign In or Create an Account.
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Despite the variability in their clinical presentation, pathogenic rickettsiae cause debilitating disease, and any one of the highly virulent rickettsial species listed in table 1 could be used as a potential biological weapon. The severity of rickettsial pathoens has been associated with pathogen virulence and host-related factors e. As obligate intracellular bacteria, rickettsiae require eukaryotic host cells for propagation, and the isolation and purification of rickettsiae without host cell contaminants would require highly skilled personnel and elaborate laboratory weaponizatkon.
Pathogenic Rickettsiae as Bioterrorism Agents | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic
Thus, the use of these agents for mass transmission requires a massive number of either infected arthropod vectors or kilograms of aerosolized rickettsiae. Email alerts New issue alert. ZubayProfessor Geoffrey Zubay. However, there is another face of typhus, a recrudescent typhus i.
Because of their unique biological characteristics environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, high morbidity, and substantial mortalityR. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Woodward, for his insightful contributions to our knowledge of epidemic and murine typhus. Another drawback to developing rickettsial pathogens as biological weapons is their lack of direct transmission from host to host and the availability of very effective therapeutic countermeasures against these obligate intracellular bacteria.
The conditions that allow for abd coexistence of body lice and a susceptible population could be the starting point for a bioterrorism-initiated infection, because the release of the rickettsiae would set off a subsequent chain reaction.
Because several rickettsial pathogens are on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s list of select agents, their acquisition from established repositories and their transportation are restricted.
He has published more than research papers and several books, including Biochemistry ; Genetics ; and Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos. Epidemiologic characteristics of selected highly pthogens rickettsiae. In deaponization, acquisition of rickettsial pathogens from reservoir hosts would be a daunting task requiring time-consuming protocols to obtain pure and virulent isolates. Add comment Close comment form modal. Other editions – View all Agents of Bioterrorism: Please check for further notifications by email.
In short, mass propagation of rickettsial pathogens and their purification and aerosolization remain a major challenge. The ease with which these epidemics can spread within crowded human populations has made their causative agents attractive to nations, for use as battlefield weapons, or to terrorists, for use as weapons of mass destruction or civil disruption [ 123—4 thejr. Geoffrey Zubay is professor of biology at Columbia University. In addition, humans serve as a mobile component of the louseborne typhus cycle, the behavior of which influences the pattern of typhus transmission.
However, from time to time, these infections have reemerged in epidemic form in human populations e. Each chapter considers a particular pathogen Surveillance of naturally or intentionally released pathogens is a first step in preventing the oathogens via rapid identification of causative agents and assessing the degree of their virulence. Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in canine population and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks from southern Metro Manila and Laguna, Philippines.
Knowledge of the transmission cycle would play an important role in identifying the initial source of an epidemic. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.
Because of their unique biological characteristics, such as environmental stability, small size, aerosol transmission, persistence in infected hosts, low infectious dose, and high associated morbidity and mortality, Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii have been weaponized. Although the head louse P. Several biological agents, including Rickettsia prowazekii and Coxiella burnetii —the causative agents of louseborne typhus and Q fever, respectively—have been weaponized and field-tested, with variable effectiveness, by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States [ 23 ].