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‘Koti Banal’ architecture of Uttarakhand is a reflection of indigenous realities and community involvement. It demonstrates a profound. This construction style, designated Koti Banal architecture, attained its zenith around years ago. This architectural style exhibits the existence of elaborate . It is reported that especially buildings of the Koti Banal architecture withstood and performed well during many past damaging earthquakes in.

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It is observed that many old structures in the Koti 8. Baal those buildings which are vertically separated two living units of the same family are present.

The walls are further raised to 30 cm by placing heavy, flat, dressed stones upon the wooden logs on the two sides and by placing another pair of wooden logs upon the stones on the other two opposite sides. Number of inhabitants in a typical building of this construction type during the day.

Floors of the Koti Banal structure tion for different soil types.

Koti Banal

However, it is supposed that the builders architecrure had lived in the buildings and that these real estates had not been erected for speculation purposes. You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log In Sign Up. The resultant architectural style exhibits existence of elaborate baanl for site selection, preparing the platform for raising the multi-storied structure, as also for the detailing of the entire structure that was constructed on principles somewhat akin to that of framed structures of modern times.

These satisfactorily fulfil the flexible diaphragm condi- tions. Accounting for the wall fillings out of dressed stones and the additional masses a reduction of the vulnerability class into C D may be suitable. Abhay Aswal A cartoonist who enjoys doodling.

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World Housing Encyclopedia -WHE

Especially those located in the villages may also be built close to each other or to other building types Figure 3 When separated architecturee adjacent buildings, the typical distance from a neighboring building is 2.

The detailing suggests that those designing the structures had a fairly good idea of the forces acting upon the struc- ture during an earthquake event.

Few remaining Koti Banal structures are observed to be deteriorating due to the lack of patronage, resources and awareness among the masses regarding their significance. I have bahal return to Uttarakhand and really look at these old buildings! Evidentially, lack of maintenance has led to the deterioration and the complete destruction of many of these structures.

The rigidity of the beams is nearly quake motion at the base of the structure can how- equal on cross ways, so that its entire rigidity tends ever be modified by the properties of the soil to be identical and its ability to resist deformation through which the earthquake waves travel.

Was the work done as a mitigation effort on an undamaged building or as a repair following earthquake damages?

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

Exterior walls are anchored for out-of-plane seismic effects at each diaphragm level with metal anchors or straps. Somehow, the practice of the Koti Banal constructions was slowly abandoned such that modifications of the original construction principle can be observed in the region. While these uniquely constructed structures have gained aarchitecture attention of archaeologists, seismologists and mechanical engineers for their remarkable ingenuity, the neglect from the people and administration have led to the wear and tear of these architectural marvels.

The Kangra earthquake of 4 April Middlemiss, C. The design seismic base shear force for the Koti Banal Figure 6. Recently, many Koti Banal structures face serious adverse effects being caused by the surrounding building development.

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In some cases larger doors and windows have been provided for better ventilation and comfort. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Despite being located in a high seismic risk area, a However, this may only be true for the lower part where the stones were only used to fill up the voids.

Despite being located in a high seismic risk area, a region in the Himalayan states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh Northern India exhibits an elaborate tradition of constructing multistoried houses.

Even today, construction of real estates for speculation purpose is not prevalent in the region. How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes by Abhay Aswal. These in- vertical elements6. This results in low inertial forces ponents of the Koti Banal architecture.

These are identified as Chaukhat; four storied or Panchapura; five storied houses.

For more information about the World Housing Encyclopedia, visit http: Koti Banal is the name of a village in the Yamuna Valley which represents the traditional knowledge and understanding of earthquake effects on buildings and their earthquake resistant design. Preliminary account of the Kangra earthquake of 4 April Middlemiss, C.

kofi Pure timber structures in general are classified into vulnerability class D with a probable range between C and E and a less probable range B.

Obviously the erection of these structures had been a community effort.