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This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.

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During extended halts, the OPFOR lays landline, and uses existing telephone networks and cellular systems whenever possible. The organization guide allows for standing divisions, but districts with separate brigades would be much more common and in keeping with the spirit of the infantry-based OPFOR concept.

Before war begins, most or all of the OPFOR’s strategic and operational first echelons occupy cm within the State, perhaps hundreds of km from the border.

File:FM – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December ).pdf – Wikimedia Commons

Thus, the differences between the infantry-based and armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR modules are largely scenario-dependent. Units from the marching forces can also perform traffic control functions, when necessary. An interval of from 80 to km separates first- and second-echelon divisions; however, reconnaissance patrols and advance guards from a second-echelon division may move within that interval.

Like the lower end of the infantry-based OPFOR, these forces are likely to attempt to deal with a larger, more technologically advanced army through terrorism or insurgency. An infantry-based force differs from an armor- and mechanized-based force primarily in terms of technological level and the ability to integrate arms into combined arms combat.

A scarcity of lines means that an army relying totally on rail requires a long time to deploy; the presence of nondeployment traffic on the lines can cause further delays.

There are two methods for ensuring this. Large infantry-based forces can have multiple armies or corps and conduct extensive set-piece operations over broad frontages.

They do not fight by the rules of conventional warfare. This menu of possible forces allows U. Preparations include the following:. Measures such as reconnaissance; NBC defense; camouflage, concealment, and deception; engineer and topographical support; and logistics are generally the responsibility of the military districts, allied states, and army groups through which the march passes.


However, artillery groups might not always move as a single march unit. The price, of course, is the destruction of unit integrity and problems in C 2. It organizes traffic control along march routes, in assembly areas, in troop disposition and combat areas, and at chokepoints.

Also, HETs need bridges with a load capacity of 80 to metric tons to cross rivers. Sign In Sign Out.

An important part of the C 2 system is the commandant’s service, defined as the system of measures organized and executed to In such cases, trainers could fill in gaps by using those parts of the capabilities-based OPFOR that are most consistent with what they do know about a specific threat. A second-echelon division on three routes is about 80 km deep. Thus, deployment in peacetime may be by rail, but during combat the movement of units by rail would be rare, except in strategic depth, and used only in exceptional circumstances.

However, such a force is exceedingly expensive to equip, train, and maintain. Enter Your Email Address.

File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf

Small-to-medium armor- and mechanized-based forces cover a wide range of technology and capability, from developing states through small, professional armies. In actual practice, these distances can vary depending on the makeup of the marching forces, the routes available, and other circumstances. The focus is on identifying ofor composition and intentions of enemy units along or near the route of advance. Activities supporting deception, such as radar corner reflectors, deception jammers, and dummy radio nets also contribute to the ESO counterreconnaissance effort.

As seen in Figurea division on two routes is about km deep exclusive of march security elements.

At both operational and tactical levels, antitank reserves and mobile obstacle detachments MODs, see Chapter 12 move on a threatened flank or forward within the main body and to be ready to deploy to either flank. The Tm depicts its enemy by using double-lined versions of the same symbols it uses for its own friendly forces. If not, they have the financial resources to purchase such systems.

A timely decision to begin mobilization and strategic redeployment is critical. These forces may or may not have nuclear weapons but at least have the capability to produce or acquire them. Traffic control and constant cover against air attack are essential, especially at obstacle crossings and chokepoints and in assembly areas.


Some elements may leapfrog ahead to defend obstacle crossings and choke points. The three doctrinal imperatives for successful strategic and operational march are speed, security, and surprise. They may still be small and lightly armed but could have sophisticated, state-of-the-art light weapons.

In terms of technology, both groups import most of their systems. Thus, the total length of an army’s columns marching in seven routes may be about km. For definitions of other key terms, the reader should refer to the index, where page numbers in bold type indicate the main entry for a particular topic. The advancing unit must coordinate carefully with air defense and air forces through which it is passing in a march from the strategic or operational depth.

This means that a unit on the march must always have at least one CP deployed and in control. With ofor assets, most such groups cannot, or will not, invest in the weapons and technology necessary to keep pace with the best militaries in their regions.

To use FMtrainers must first develop a scenario. The formal name of this branch of the armed forces, which corresponds to the U. Tracked vehicles, and heavy equipment such as SSM launchers, usually move on one route preferably pavedwhile wheeled fmm move on another route possibly an unimproved dirt road. Enemy analysts look for such “norms”, and are more easily deceived by a false pattern that meets those expectations.

The name of that country is the State. Shortened timelines opdor from closure with the enemy do not allow for this in most cases. Continuity of C 2 is fundamental. Moving from the final assembly area to the oopfor of ofor, first-echelon divisions can spread dm more to observe proper tactical intervals see Figure The State may or may not have chemical and biological weapons, but has the capability to produce or acquire them.

In order to build a strong strategic grouping to mount an offensive in one theater or to ensure defense of a threatened theater, the General Staff must mobilize and redeploy forces from one or more other theaters.